1. Is there reason to believe these researchers are
competent? (What are their qualifications and institutional
2. Is there reason to believe these researchers are biased?
(Did a company, group, or individual who would benefit
financially from the research results sponsor the
3. Has anyone responded to this piece of health news? (Have other experts, individuals, or
organizations commented? Would any of these people benefit financially by the research
4. Are there qualifying words in the article (like "may," "seem," "possibly," "appears," "in some
cases") that are signals for caution in interpreting the results?
5. How was the research done? (With people? animals?)
6. Has the study been replicated (done over and over)? Have the results been similar?
7. Were the subjects in the study similar (which would limit the usefulness of the results)?
8. Are there other factors, not examined in this study, which might have influenced the results?
What are they?
9. Does the article report all that is known about the topic? Has important information been left
10. What health questions have been raised in your mind? What new questions have been raised
for future research studies?
11. Is this topic part of an ongoing controversy? If so, which side of the controversy has been
helped by the results of this study?
12. Are the research results reported in this article relevant to one of your
personal health decisions? If so, is there enough information to make you
consider changing one of your decisions? Do you need additional